USSR 1920 Design

From 1917 up until 1920 Russian citizen were embroiled in a civil war. The aristocratic rule of the Tsar was over thrown and the fighting factions emerged were the Bolsheviks, or the Reds and the anti-Bolsheviks, the whites. The Bolsheviks were Marxist who wanted to bring the working class and poverty stricken to power and were supported by much of the Russian military, while the whites apposed the revolutionaries and support came from Britain and the US. After the anti-Bolsheviks were defeated the Reds and their leader Lenin took power. This is a brief look at what happen for the next ten years.

courtesy of heracorporate.com

courtesy of heracorporate.com

Social Change: During the era of NEP( New Economic Policy) there was a degree of freedom, creative exploration among the people of the Soviet Union. Different schools flourished ranging from traditional to experimental. The primary and secondary school expanded and included night schooling for working adults. As long as the works remained non-hostile to the party, communist writers such as Maksim Gorkiy and Vladimir Mayakovsky were able to publish freely. Filmmaking was encouraged from the state so the message could reach the illiterate masses. Families, in turn, became more open minded and progressive undermining institutions such as marriage and easing the policies on divorce. Abortion was also legalized under NEP.

ruskie

Stalin’s Five Year Plan policy undid much of the progress within a few years of Lenin’s death in 1924. He began restricting peasants and placing them into collectives aka collectivization program compounding land and animals collective farms. The wealthier peasants known as Kulaks were targeted for elimination and deportation Siberia along with rebels and disagreeable peasants. In an act of rebellion they slaughtered their cows and pigs resulting in lack of livestock for years after. Stalin reported growth in production everywhere even though widespread starvation began to occur.

 

courtesy of dragoart

courtesy of dragoart

 

Propaganda: Lenin and Stalin both utilized posters, pamphlets, art, and film to inspire and steer people towards acceptance of new policy and reform. Lenin favored Agitprop, which stands for Agitation Propaganda, is described by Marxist Georgy Plekhanov as “ideas to an individual or small group and agitation as the promulgation of a single idea to a large mass of people,” as stated in Encyclopedia Britannica.

courtesy of guity-novin blogspot

courtesy of guity-novin blogspot

 

 

Spatial Environments: The Designers and Architects of 1920 USSR were presented with the problem of severe housing shortage and the want to build a Socialist living space. The revolutions ideal pushed for the abandonment of what was considered oppressive styles such as Neo Classical or Gothic buildings towards Modernism and into a the new form of existence. This plan would create not just communal living spaces but communal factories, art centres, collective farms all in order to break down the nuclear family and create balance between the peasant and the factory worker.

Residential Life: One such project, Dom-Komuna, is designed to house a sizable amount of people, which includes meeting rooms, clubhouses, a theater, health care facilities etc. Also including administrative building and housing for adults it varied in two different housing theories for children. These “beehive’s” would either maintain the parent child relationship or they would be raised in separate accommodations with a school type community.

courtesy of thecharnelhouse.org

courtesy of thecharnelhouse.org

Health: Aforementioned, under Lenin’s NEP policy, industry suffered but agriculture flourished creating a surplus of foods for consumption. Socialist health care was established around the communal living areas and health for the Russian people began to seemed to experience a positive upswing. With Stalins claiming of power this all seemed to come to a halt. On paper it was reported that the nation was experiencing production to more than satisfy the masses. But the country was actually going thru the turmoil of widespread famine and the medical care though available to all was of extremely poor quality.

courtesy of histclo.com

courtesy of histclo.com

Technology: Home movies taken shows that Russian was keeping up with the Western counterparts. The Bolshevik movement was to open prosperity for all but it only enabled a small few to obtain luxuries to create such films.

Transportation: Much of the transportation was public transport fitting in with the collectivism attitude. Bus, train, and boat as well as bicycle. Cars could only be afforded by the social elite that under the Bolshevik rule should not have existed.

Markets: The USSR experienced a brief economic recovery during the 1920. The Treaty of Rapallo, one of the first diplomatic treaties consented to by Russia with Germany, opened channels for military and economic liaisons between the countries. Lenin also introduced a controlled form of capitalism.

NEP State Capitalism, as referred to by Stalin, introduced a kind of free market. Though the communist party was split on trusting in the policy agriculture output increased and railroads were able to support expanding industry. The farming industry even boosted overages. However, a imbalance between the prices of industrial goods and agriculture emerged. This was referred to as the Scissor Crisis, which peaked in 1923.

wikepedia

courtesy of wikepedia

5 Year Plan After Lenin’s death(1924), Stalin introduced his Five Year Plans abandoning NEP. This stemmed from the belief that Russia needed to close the gap between itself and the west by expanding industrial production. The ideal was that heavy industry and collectivism farming would thrive. Though industry grew and expanded the Collectivization farm policy caused widespread famine.

courtesy of uchicago.edu

courtesy of uchicago.edu

Fashion: Much of the fashion we have seen from Russia in the 1920’s consist of dark colored simple dresses in stiff shapes and headscarves known as babushka’s. These simple digs helped to separate the ideals of the bourgeois from the emerging Bolsheviks party.

Under Lenin’s rule, Nepmen, private traders who were sanctioned by the state dressed their wives in the latest flapper fashion, furs, and expensive jewels. The Bolsheviks regarded them as prostitutes but they were tolerated though made fun of. Arts influence on clothing also thrived. Varvara Stepanova’s play The Death of Tarelkin in 1922 was considered fashionable innovative for the time.

courtesy of tribe and things

courtesy of tribe and things

courtesy of quod.lib.umich.edu

courtesy of quod.lib.umich.edu

Stalin put and end to the Nepman though he expressed a plan to make available to every women, not just the privileged, beautiful well made clothing. However, the only people rewarded with such luxuries were the Stakhanovites, shock workers aka campaign heads.

War: Short and often overlooked the Polish-Soviet War had been simmering for years resulting in a clash that was inevitable. WWI was the catalyst for Poland new found independence and they claimed land from Russian and German Borders as their own. For the month of August the Bolsheviks invaded Poland and it would seem that the victory was inevitable however Poland landed a heavy blow and pushed the Russian invaders back winning the war. They used posters and pamphlets to push the war onto the people. It calls to defeat white Poland.

courtesy of wikepedia.org

courtesy of wikepedia.org

Film: The Russian film industry was used by both Lenin and Stalin to communicate to the illiterate public the agenda, policy and ideals. Lenin’s agitprop was especially effective with the use of this artistic medium. Films have more of a palpable quality than posters alone, stirring emotion with quick reactionary results. During this time Russian film makers innovated the montage as a method of showing events interlaced with provocative figures to stir revolution. This was extremely effective in one of Russia’s most famous propaganda films from 1925, Battleship Potemkin.

Cites

Farry, Eithne. “The Secret History of Soviet Fashion.” Telegraph. Posted October 31,2010. Accessed April 18,2014.http://fashion.telegraph.co.uk/article/TMG8081423/The-secret-history-of-Soviet-fashion.html

Adams, Matthew.” The Rise of the Ussr in the 1920’s.” Humanities 360. Posted August 26, 2010. Accessed April 18,2014.http://www.humanities360.com/index.php/the-rise-of-the-ussr-in-the-1920s-20096/

“Revelations From Russian Archives.” Library of Congress. Accessed April 18, 2014.http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/sovi.html

Curtis, Glenn. “ Russia: A Country Study. GPO for the Library of Congress. 1996. Accessed April 18, 2014.http://countrystudies.us/russia/9.htm

Tiege, Karel. “Mikhail Barshch’s housing communes in Moscow 1928-1930.” The Charnel House. Posted April 14,2014. Accessed April 18,2014.http://thecharnelhouse.org/2014/04/14/mikhail-barshchs-housing-communes-in-moscow-1928-1930/

Wilson, Elizabeth.” The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women.” University of California Press. Copyright 1992. Accessed April 18, 2014.http://books.google.com/books?id=zE9WmCF2RkkC&pg=PA97&lpg=PA97&dq=1920+USSr+Communal+Living&source=bl&ots=D-QfNWpXa0&sig=euVK917CFtfhw21-ixqfZEi7XOg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=c3NWU6qnAdXIsATRnYG4CQ&ved=0CFMQ6AEwBg – v=onepage&q=1920%20USSr%20Communal%20Living&f=false

Encyclopædia Britannica Online, s. v. “agitprop,” accessed April 22, 2014, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/9224/agitprop.

“Moscow Russia 1920’s film 15866.MPG.” HuntleyFilmArchives. Posted September 19,2012. Accessed April 18,2014.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iIpTI6_JvUA

“Soviet animated propaghanda 1924( Lenin’s Kino Pravada).” Stripe66506. Posted October 31, 2009. Accessed April 18,2014.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3IkiJb4obKc

“Soviet Montage.” CineCollage. Accessed April 18,2014.http://cinecollage.net/soviet-montage.html

“Polish-Soviet War: Battle of Warsaw.” History Net. Posted June 12,2006. Accessed April 18,2014.http://www.historynet.com/polish-soviet-war-battle-of-warsaw

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Post Modernism Catalog

Post Modern Dream Catalog 2014

 

courtesy of wundernest.com

courtesy of wundernest.com

Name: APRIL GREIMAN

Example Name:”Cal Arts” poster

Year:1978

Materials: Lithograph on paper

Facts:April Greiman was a photographer , designer, who incorporated drawing prints and graphics into her work making one dimensional posters appear three dimensional. She moved to LA and design with Jayme Odgers the above poster for Cal Arts and ushering in the California New Wave. Quote: “What I immediately loved about L.A., and still love, is the way the boundaries are never fixed. That’s the advantage of having so little local tradition.”via Los Angeles Times 1998. Featured in the catalog for launching a design medium and using past collage aesthetics in all new ways.

courtesy of riseart.com

courtesy of riseart.com

Name:FRANK SCHREINER 

Example Name:”Consumer’s Rest” 

Year:1983

Materials: Galvanized Steel Wire 

Facts: Made By Schreiner for Stiletto Studios located in West Berlin. The story goes he took his mother to a design shop and when encountered with the wire mesh furniture she said it all looked like shopping carts, and the chair idea was implanted. Included in this catalog for taking something used in the mundane daily activity into a whimsical office feature.

 

courtesy of riseart.com

courtesy of riseart.com

Name:AI WEIWEI

Example Name:Han Dynasty Urn with Coca-Cola Logo

Year: 1994

Materials: Ceramic

Facts: WEIWEI created the Coca-Cola Urn as a metaphor for the fight between commercial progress and historical preservation. In 1995 he took a series of stills dropping a Han Dynasty Urn and staring at the broken pieces. This is now one of his most renowed pieces of art work. However, in 2012 Manuel Slavisberg photographs the owner, Uli Sigg, of the Coca-Cola Urn in WEIWEI similar stance dropping the Urn. This creates brand new art work and is renamed Fragments of History. Everything about the history of the pot says out with the old in with the making of the new.

courtesy of peter-scott.co.uk

courtesy of peter-scott.co.uk

Name: FERRUCCIO LAVIANI

Example Name: Evolution

Year:2009

Materials: Oak Carved Wood and Brushed Brass

Facts: Part neo Rococo part Italian minimalism this sideboard acts as a look at furniture through time in one piece. They effortlessly dissolve into one another and is a visual example of postmodern intertwining of historical design eras to create something all its own. This piece strangeness also could lend to longevity as a featured home piece.

courtesy of content.time.com

courtesy of content.time.com

Name:BANKSY

Example Name: Breaking Out

Year: Unknown

Materials:Canvas and oil paint.

Facts: Banksy is one of the most well known political artist that has yet to be identified. His art pops up over night and makes statements that are fantastical, eye opening, and hard to ignore. Sometimes called a art terrorist, Breaking Out is a feature in a Town Hall art show in Bristol, England to thank the city for his early street art career. Banksy art is as sought after as his identity. His bold new takes on telling truths about society and past are comical and thought provoking.

courtesy of the guardian.com

courtesy of the guardian.com

Name:MICHAEL GRAVES

Example Name:Alessi Tea Kettle 9093 by Michael Graves

Year:1985

Materials: Stainless Steele with Thermo Plastic Resin handle

Facts:One of the most sought after tea kettles in the world, after its debut in 1985 it went on to sell more units in Alessi history than any other item in the catalog. He designed the base is wider with a narrowing at the top creating a more efficient tea kettle that boils water faster. The Bird Whistle can also be replaced if lost. Though it is considered retro now it hasn’t lost its modern edge and the fact that the design is so efficient it is still useful as ever.

courtesy of architectmagazine.com

courtesy of architectmagazine.com

Name: FRANK GEHRY

Example Name:GEHRY HOUSE

Year:1970

Materials: Wood, Glass, Aluminum, and Chain Link fencing

Facts: An unrecognizable entrance the house looks as if it is always under construction or growing out of the ground. He wanted to keep the original house intact and build around it and the interiors cause disorientation because of the placement of mirrors and glass. Setting down in the house you are able to see the moon as if it is floating in the house. They also decided the house was haunted with the ghost of cubism. This hose is featured because of its deconstructivist esthetics but is a classic none the less.

 

 

 

 

Cites

McGuirk, Justin. “Has postmodernist design eaten itself.”Posted Sept. 12, 2011. Accessed May 5,2014.http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2011/sep/12/postmodernist-design-v-and-a-retrospective

“Postmodernism: the freestyling that marked an era.” Wundernest. Posted 2014. Accessed May 5,2014.http://www.wundernest.com/2012/03/post-2/?lang=en

“Stop Making Sense-Postmodernism: Style and Subversion.” RiseArt. Posted Octiber 17,2011. Accessed May 6,2014http://www.riseart.com/article/2011-10-17-stop-making-sense-postmodernism-style-and-subversion

“Banksy Secret Art Show.”Time Magazine. Accessed May 6,2014.http://content.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1904391,00.html

“Gehry House.” Peter Bourgon.Org. Accessed May 6, 2014http://peter.bourgon.org/postmodernism/ – /step-50

Hoyt, Alex. “The Tijuana Sausage Factory.” Architect. Posted May 17,1012. Accessed May 6,2014.http://www.architectmagazine.com/architects/the-tijuana-sausage-factory.aspx

Yap, Chin-Chin. “Devastating History.” Posted May/June 2012. Accessed May 6,2014.http://artasiapacific.com/Magazine/78/DevastatingHistory

“April Greiman.” Smithsonian. Accessed May 6,2014.http://collection.cooperhewitt.org/people/18041839/objects/

Whiteson, Leon. “A Designing Woman With Radical Ideas.”Posted October 9, 1998. Accessed May 6, 2014. http://articles.latimes.com/1988-10-09/entertainment/ca-5241_1_graphic-design

Fitzu.com. Accessed May 6, 2014.http://www.fitzsu.com/alessi-michael-graves-tea-kettle.html

Santoso, Alex. “ Frank Schreiners Shopping Cart Chair.” Posted July 15, 2006. Accessed May 6,2014.http://www.neatorama.com/2006/07/15/frank-schreiners-shopping-cart-chair/ – !EeEMk

“(Con) Fused Furnituture Design: Hybrid Historic+Modern Style.”Accessed May 6, 2014.http://dornob.com/confused-furniture-design-hybrid-historic-modern-style/ – axzz2yzWW22oq

Perez, Adelyn. “Gehry Residence/Frank Gehry.” Posted July 5, 2010. Accessed May 6, 2014.http://www.archdaily.com/67321/gehry-residence-frank-gehry/

D Center Convo #3: Designs Place in Sustainability, Resilience, and Adaptation

The D Center Conversation held at the Windup Space featured three speakers doing their part in making Baltimore and the surrounding areas more sustainable, resilient, and adaptive to the ever changing landscape. The speakers included Lindsay Brugger of the DC Chapter of Architecture for Humanity, Alice Kennedy from the Baltimore City office of Sustainability, and Jonathan Erwin Deutsch Social Design Fellow at MICA Department of Social Design. Each speaker touched on issues effecting the community such as designs place in organized inoculation planning, disaster recovery, and improving communication of the areas citizens. As shown in the presentations, designers are adapting a new outlook of what design is and how it is defined as well as including how to create sustainability and resilience when facing design conundrums. To gain a further understanding of these 3 buzz words lets start with the definitions: What is?

Sustainability;able to be used without being completely used up or destroyed

Resilience;the ability to become strong, healthy, or successful again after something bad happens 

Adaptation;adjustment to environmental conditions Below is a pretty popular chart of what designers must think of when creating.

If you are a design yokel like me your already possibly lost. You understand the go green concept but it can get overwhelming and it is asked what else can you do? Of course consume less, plant more, conserve, but also Pay Attention To Smart Design.  It works like voting. When we the community (social), thru our purchases( economics), buy products that are sustainable, resilient, and adaptable, our environment reaps the reward. We are going to shop, but lets shop right.  

Sustainable 

Computers are known for the harsh impact on the environment. They are distractive from construction to disposal and while in use create a large carbon footprint. For the Greener Gadget Design Competition Brenden Macaluso made the lifecycle of the PC more sustainable. The computer is made from un die-cut cardboard held together with non toxic white glue. It reduced labor, processed materials, and made it more recyclable at the end of its use.

courtesy of inhabitat.com

Panasonic has designed a LED Clear Bulb recreates the mood and look of incandescents light bulbs  while offering a rated lifespan of 40,000 hours. The light resembles a filament and light goes in all direction but it boost a lifespan of 40,000. It won the Sustainability Award at the International Design Excellence Awards. Since it has the same dimensions as an incandescent, the LED Clear Bulb can be used with any light fixture that uses an incandescent.

courtesy of dexigner.com

courtesy of dexigner.com

Resilient

Featured on Wired website the “Life Cube” from Inflatable World conatins a 12 foot structure that resembles a bouncy house. It cost around 3,900 dollars and provides shelter and amenities for people for weeks after a disaster. The cube can be dropped to a location within 72 hours and it has a bed, a couch, freeze-dried food, a 50-gallon water bladder, a first-aid kit, a radio and a cookstove.

courtesy of wired.com

courtesy of wired.com

imgres   The Lifestraw is a water filter that is small, portable, and  removes all waterborne bacteria and parasites. You place the straw in the water and simply suck. The filters within the straw iodine and textiles that kill the bacteria and improve the taste of the water. They are 88 Us dollars but the clean water they provide invaluable.

courtesy of egeniusdesigns.com

courtesy of egeniusdesigns.com

courtesy of egeniusdesigns.com

courtesy of egeniusdesigns.com

Adaptation  

courtesy of greendiary.com

courtesy of greendiary.com

In Singapore a 26 floor skyscraper will be built entirely of recycled material. The energy used in the building will be provided by solar panels and human sewage that produces biogas. The walls will be adjustable providing room needed if space gets tight due to the fact that half the surface will be flora with the expectation of growth. Named EDITT (Ecological Design In The Tropics) it is the idea of a inhabitable feral building.

courtesy of greenrealestateinvestingnews.com

courtesy of greenrealestateinvestingnews.com

This plan for a “net -zero” building features self sufficient energy generating technology that cuts down on usage and pollution.The biggest challenge of net-zero buildings, especially for smaller builders, is the pricey initial construction cost. Though the cost to build is 10% higher the yielded longterm energy recuperation reimburse the initial cost .Naomi Porat, Zeta’s CEO of Net Zero building stated, “ it could change forever the way we think about buildings as great energy consumers, to [thinking about them as] great energy producers.”

 

Cites

Mienhold, Bridgettte. Recompute: Sustainable Desktop Computer. Inhabitat/ Technology. Posted 02/16/09. Accessed April 6,2014.http://inhabitat.com/recompute-by-brenden-macaluso/

“2014 Quick Facts.” Loading Dock. Accessed April 6,2014.http://www.loadingdock.org/inventory_art/index.html

Ozler, Levent. “Best in Show of the 2012 International Design Excellence Awards.” Dexinger. Posted August 27, 2012. Accessed April 6, 2014.http://www.dexigner.com/news/25546

Madrigal, Alexis.” Tricked- Out Inflatable House Provides “Instant Survival.” Wired. Posted 11/7/08. Accessed April 8, 2014.http://www.wired.com/2008/11/inflatable-hous/

“ 5 Green buildings design for the future of farming.” Green Dairy. Accessed April 8, 2014.http://www.greendiary.com/5-green-building-designs-future-farming.html

McQuilken, Alex. “ The Future Of Building Is Net Zero.” Green Real Estate Investing News. Posted Sep 19, 2010. Accessed April 8, 2014.http://www.greenrealestateinvestingnews.com/green-real-estate-investing/the-future-of-building-is-net-zero.html

 

 

Philippe Starck

* Note: Above is a mock trailer with previously recorded interviews that could give an idea of some of the shots that could be placed in a feature Documentary on the work of Philippe Starck. Below is the full treatment outline of what it could possibly become.

Starck the Design Documentary: Treatment

Opening

Philip Starck sets at his desk with a visiting interviewer seated across from him. The interviewer hands him a set of headphones and asks him what he thinks of the design of the headphones. Philip contemplates the question and answers.

Music/Title Cards

Title Card: The Birth

 Act 1 begins with his opinion of past design and what makes good design. Next his career beginnings will be explored. Still pictures of his father will be shown as Starck narrates early childhood experiences. These experiences will entail how he was influenced by his father to take up design. Next, a montage of pictures of his first design concepts and him as a young man intertwines to a fast paced soundtrack. The pictures will include where he studied at the Ecole Nissim de Camondo in Paris where he produced inflatable objects and started his first company. After, his interior Work on the Nightclub La Main Bleue and Les Bains-Douches will be featured. The music slows Starck narrates his work on the private apartment of President Francois Mitterrand. The music fades into shots of a quiet Starck working in his office. He pulls out drawing and inspiration for the restaurants he has designed like Miss Ko in Paris which has graphics of dragons that swim thru the table while dining and products such as the Juicy Salif juicer Alessi. As, he shows the design he explains his rejection of design for beauty and symbolic and expresses his hope to improve peoples lives with humor and surprises. He then hints at how it should also go to a more organic state to improve the world in which we live. 

Title Card: The Death

Act 2 music with a montage of headlines is shown proclaiming Design is Dead according to Philippe Starck. In 2008 Starck announced his retirement because of his discontentment with the ethical and consumption that come with product design. A close up of Starck where he expresses that the whole announcement was a bit dramatic and explains how he plans to deal with it. He introduces “Democratic Ecology”, which is a personal invisible windmill. This enables every man women and child to generate up to 20-60% there own personal energy to run the home. Music comes in montage of eco friendly work by Starck plays out. The Organic Tap for Axor is explained how it can save water by switching the head from the boost setting as well as the lines of the spout being generated from vegetation. It cuts with controversial interactions with other designers and then to the relationship wit Emeco and the explanation of the Broom Chair. Starck and Emeco in a collaborative effort made a recyclable, repurposed, reclaimed chair that would use the waste that would normally be put in the trash and then to a landfill or burned. Starck charmingly explains the explanation for the name as magic made by dust.

Title Card: Immortality

Act 3 sums up the belief that sustainability is guiltless immortality. In the final scenes Starck explains the human propensity to want to do better, to live better, never returning to old ways. He believes that products such as the Broom Chair, the Organic Tap, and Democratic Ecology are the start of social and environmental responsible design and that is a necessity every designer should consider every time they set down to create. This scene will have a series of shots showing Starck products at work, a journey thru time of the origins of teh ghost chair and the music raises.

Credits

 

 

Cites 

“Biography.” Starck. Posted January 2013. Accessed March 29, 2014.http://www.starck.com/en/philippe_starck/biography/

Zukowsky, John. “Philippe Starck.” Last Updated 6/18/2013. Accessed March 29, 2014. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1233446/Philippe-Starck

“ Philippe Starck.” Design Within Reach. Accessed March 29, 2014.http://www.dwr.com/category/designers/r-t/philippe-starck.do

Rawsthorn, Alice. “ And Now, to Try and Catch the Wind.” Posted August 6. 2014. Accessed March 29, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/07/garden/07starck.html?_r=0

“Designer Philippe Starck Embraces his Feminine Side.” FastCompany. Youtube. Posted Jan 26, 2009. Accessed March 28, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J6hQpoLGcJw

“Miss Ko, Resturant designed by Philippe Starck.”TechnologyVideosful. Youtube. Posted May 8, 2013. Accessed March 28, 2014.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fhJx__TWqM0

“Word Association With Philipe Starck!”Phillipe Starck: Rapid Fire Q& A. Aol.0nTech. Posted 4/22/2012. Accessed March 28, 2014.http://on.aol.com/video/philippe-starck–rapid-fire-qanda-517341702

“The Engadget Show: Inside The Mind Of Designer Philippe Starck.”Aol.On Arts&Hobbies. 4/21/2012. Accessed March 28,2014.http://on.aol.com/video/the-engadget-show–inside-the-mind-of-designer-philippe-starck-517341704

“Philippe Starck on Bathroom Design.” House Beautiful. Aol.OnHome. 9/8/2013. Accessed March 28, 2014.http://on.aol.com/video/philippe-starck-on-bathroom-design-517925323

“Broom.” Emeco. Vimeo. Accessed March 28, 2014.http://vimeo.com/42665448

 

 

 

 

Atomic Age Design

Atomic Age Design is an optimistic projection into future America. This art and design movement kicked back against the Machine Age aesthetic with an organic and anthropomorphic approach to objects produced. Many of the materials developed during WWII went from being used to help the war effort to being used in household items. Molded plywood developed by the Eames couple is used in furniture, Earl Tupper reuse of plastic for food storage called Tupperware, and Camo cloth used to create a evening dresses by designer Adrian are just a few examples. Though, under the Mid Century Style umbrella, Atomic Style slightly diverges with a more unique and recognizable look that evokes outer space living.

Atomic Elements and Principles of Design

The want for objects that were beautiful as well as functionally inspired items that molded to hands when carried and to the body when seated. This is what shaped the theory that drove  Atomic design to implement organic shapes and aesthetics. The shapes and colors were not realistic examples of things found in natured but rather the outline and generalities of forms. Another aspect to the Atomic design principle was the theory of Vitalism. Vitalism is the belief that all things have a life force/essence that can be sensed by the designer or artist. This reverses the standard creative process and the materials become the creator while the designer/artist is merely a catalyst of release.

courtesy of lacma.blogspot.com

courtesy of lacma.blogspot.com

Imagery Sources

The War, innovative materials, Atom Bomb, organic forms such as the human body, all in combination with the hope and fears of Americans pushed Atomic art and style into pop culture. After the war ended much of the materials only available to the war effort became free for civilian use. The molded plywood, plastics and fabrics fit a wide range of uses. The Atom Bomb terrified the nation at first and influenced films with horror sci-fi that showed mutant forms. However, as the confidence that atomic power could be harnessed and used as a energy source it took on a more jovial role in products and furnishing.

courtesy of revivalvintagestudio.blogspot

courtesy of revivalvintagestudio.blogspot

courtesy of revivalvintagestudio.blogspot

courtesy of revivalvintagestudio.blogspot

courtesy of revivalvintagestudio.blogspot

courtesy of revivalvintagestudio.blogspot

Products

Barkcloth

Barkcloth is made from the bark of the Hawaiian Kapa and Mulberry tree added to cotton, rayon, and linen. It was used to upholster furniture and for draperies due to its durability. The original Barkcloth patterns produced featured flowers. plants, and other scenes from nature. The most recognizable and popular Barkcloth patterns are that of the  Atomic Design Aesthetic which kept with nature and organic themes but moved them in a abstract direction.  Many of the shapes are amebic with lines that resemble starburst. Also, flowers and leaves are deconstructed becoming only recognizable in shape.

Courtesy of Etsy RikkiVanCamp

Courtesy of Etsy RikkiVanCamp

Predicta Television

Philco Televisions gained poppularity post WWII because it featured many andvances in home veiwing technology. When their sales began to fall they turned to Americans fascination with space travel as well as the Russians Satellite Sputnik as inspiration for designing the new line of T.V.’s. They soon developed a television that could be separated from the base to create a variety of viewing areas. They also tapped in to the imagination by creating  a space ship like body called the Meteor. Predicta ads touted it as the,”TV today from the world of tomorrow”.

Predicta Meteor Courtesy of Predicta.com

Predicta Meteor Courtesy of Predicta.com

Tension Pole Lamp

Ted Stiffel designed lamps that he felt should be functioning works of art. He did not only employ designers in making his  lamps but glass makers and metalworkers as well. Stiffel’s Pole Lamp is most often stainless steel with a spring tension within the pole that holds it in place from the floor to the ceiling. The cone shaped lamps could swivel and be directed towards any area of the room. Since its introduction in the 1940’s its maintained its popularity.

Stiffel tension Pole Lamp courtesy of krrb.com

Stiffel tension Pole Lamp courtesy of krrb.com

The Designer: George Nelson

George Nelson was a Yale educated architect who also taught, designed furniture and graphics, put on exhibitions, as well as wrote for industry publications. He is described via the George Nelsons Foundation website as someone to whom, “no one profession was sufficient”due to his energy for life. Nelson was a major influence in post WWII design scene creating the Coconut Chair, Marshmallow Sofa, and Ball Clock. The Ball Clock popularity enabled sales to continue for more than four decades. The origin of the clock is often linked to the science of the movement of atoms with a distinct link to the atom bomb. But according to Nelson it was a collaborative effort between him and friends who took turns playing with a design drawing during a drunken night of fun.

Coconut Chair courtesy of George Nelson Foundation.org

Coconut Chair courtesy of George Nelson Foundation.org

1049

Marshmallow Sofa courtesy of George Nelson Foundation.org

Cites

George Nelson Foundation.“Overview.”Accessed March 22, 2014. http://www.georgenelsonfoundation.org/george-nelson/index.html

Syratt Lorraine. “What is Vintage Barkcloth.” Antique Q & A. Accessed March 21,2014. http://antiquesqa.com/vintage-barkcloth/

MZTV Museum of Television.“The Philco Predicta.” Accessed March 21, 2014.http://www.mztv.com/newframe.asp?content=http://www.mztv.com/predicta.html

“Didactics.”Vital Forms: American Art and Design in the Atomic Age, 1940-1960. Accessed March 21,2014.http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/exhibitions/1202/Vital_Forms%3A_American_Art_and_Design_in_the_Atomic_Age_1940-1960

Valdez, Valerie. “ The History of Stiffel Lamps.” EHow. Accessed March 21, 2014. http://www.ehow.com/about_6624716_history-stiffel-lamps.html

Reeves, Laurie. “How to Identify Marks of a Stiffel Lamp.” Demand Media. Accessed March 21,2014. http://homeguides.sfgate.com/identify-marks-stiffel-lamp-91234.html

Moxie Suzy. “ Atomic Age Design-Beauty and The Bomb.” Retropedia Blog Spot. Last Modified January 23, 2013. Accessed March 21, 2014. http://revivalvintagestudio.blogspot.com/2013/01/mid-century-design-in-atomic-age-beauty.html

” George Nelson:The Ball Clock.” Calvincarter. Uploaded Aug 22, 2011. Accesessed March 21, 2014.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=urILkYvelbw

Aside

D Center Convo #2 The Resilient City

Image

Courtesy of The Contemporary Facebook Page

What does the D Center Convo, The Resilient City, and The India Report by Charles and Ray Eames have in common? Well a Lota.

In 1958 the couple was asked to investigate Indian cultural needs and recommend a direction for a school of design for small industry. A industrial explosion threaten quality in design and goods production.The Lota Pot was praised by the design couple for its simplicity, efficiency, and beauty. This water carrying vessels brilliance was a result of exploring and solving the problems of transporting and storing liquid, however these questions were solved over a period of time by generations of people. The Eames’s goal was to recreate this process but at a industrial pace.

Courtesy of loc.gov

Charles and Ray Eames Courtesy of loc.gov

There answer was to bring in multiple design disciplines, small and large industry, official and non official, which they would establish a board to explore and research all needs in design. The result would not deteriorate or gentrify the communities established values and quality of their “Standard of Living”(India Report pg6) but enhance it overall.

Courtesy of brooklynmuseum.org

Courtesy of brooklynmuseum.org

The D Center talk

The Resilient City featured 3 speakers Deana Haggag Director of the Contemporary Museum, Rebecca Chan, Program Director of Station North Arts & Entertainment District, and Elliot Rauh, Managing Director of Single Carrot Theatre. Each of the speakers vocalized their love of the city and the desire to bring beauty and art to the existing community.

 The Contemporary is a nomadic museum because they feel that a “audience is everywhere”. Director Deana Haggag looked outside of Baltimore for inspiration of how to accomplish this and found several cities who were utilizing a traveling art installation model. A model was put in place from these influences that fit the Baltimore community needs.

Courtesy of The Contemporary Facebook Page

Courtesy of The Contemporary Facebook Page

Below is a art install presented by The Contemporary. A work by video artist Dara Birnbaum who is known for challenging gender bias. The interesting thing aboutthe placement of the piece is that it is adjacent to The Block, a baltimore strip club landmark.

Courtesy of photos.citypaper.com

Courtesy of photos.citypaper.com

Station North Arts & Entertainment District is responsible for the influx of murals around the city. Located in a old carryout which sold chicken has appropriately honored it by calling it the “chicken box.”

Courtesy of stationnorth.org

Courtesy of stationnorth.org

Adopting the vernacular of the city shows the commitment o f the artist to beautify without gentrifying. They hope to expand the district and apply further improvement by giving the city vacant lot into a functional place for art and entertainment.

Courtesy of stationnorth.org

Courtesy of stationnorth.org

Single Carrot Theatre are a troupe of actors who were looking for a permanent home to produce theatrical works for communities and found they were greeted with open arms by the Baltimore art scene. But not only did they want to establish a theater but make it access-able to community members no matter your income. Single Carrot hopes to continue to ask locals “and” what else can we do? And strive to make an impact with these combination of goals.

Courtesy of singlecarrot.com credit Christy Zuccarini

Courtesy of singlecarrot.com credit Christy Zuccarini

As a home owner in the city, I as well as my neighboring home owners struggle with wanting to improve our neighborhood without losing the faces of the people who are our neighborhood. The misconception is that people with the lowest of income are destroying the neighborhood, instead of looking at the truth that any person from any price point can have no reverence for their living space. A neighborhood improves and it is beautified but becomes uninteresting and uniform. Why? The little old lady living off her late husbands pension can no longer afford to live there. However, she was the one who maintained the daffodils in the painted tire planters the block is known for. It was so refreshing to know that it is possible to keep Charm City charming. The artist from the talk like the Eames took a look at what existed and saw it works but needs updates and improvements to keep its resilience. That resilience comes from the lesson we have learned from something created by past generation and the next generation putting the latest knowledge to it. I learned that a group outside of the city homeowner is interested in making sure our city may change shape but maintains what we love about it, and that’s wonderful.

Cites
Charles and Ray Eames, “The India Report,” NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DESIGN. April 1958, Designed & Printed at National Institute of Design

“Top 15 Shows of the Contemporary Museum,” Baltimore City Paper Editorial Galleries, last modified December 3,2013, accessed March 6, 2014,http://photos.citypaper.com/index.php/top-15-shows-of-the-contemporary-museum/#5

Mehta, Avnish, “Introduction to the Lota”(Master Programme  PSSD 2008/2009),http://issuu.com/avnish.mehta/docs/lota_design_exercise

7 Innovations That Changed the Way We Live

Between 1925 and 1959 America experienced two World Wars that changed the way we live. Some of the various types of new design influenced our government while others challenged our collective conventions. Below are seven examples of design pioneering during this time.

Charles Brannock

courtesy of buisnessinsider.com

courtesy of buisnessinsider.com

1925-Using an erector set Charles Brannock built a prototype of the Brannock device. This device is common to American shoe stores today as well as the industry standard, but prior to this invention they used a block of wood to measure the foot which resulted in inaccurate measurement. When the army found out about the insured measurement accuracy they hired Brannock to fit enlisted men with boots for WWII. This venture afforded him expansion of the company. He was urged to make his product out of plastic so it could be replaced every few months driving up monetary return but Brannock prized quality, durability, and longevity insisting his product be made of durable steel. Most stores replace the device after at least 15 years usage due to wear and tear on the printed numbers.

Monitor Top Refrigerator

courtesy of industrialdesignhistory.com

courtesy of industrialdesignhistory.com

1927- The Monitor Top refrigerator by GE was designed by engineer Christian Steenstrup and sold to the public for $525 dollars. The first all steel refrigerator had a single door with an exposed compressor at the top, hence the name Monitor Top. As the most successful of the GE products at the time they established themselves as industry leaders. The refrigerator enabled the housewife to buy more food and store it longer.

 

courtesy of pinupsandkustoms.com

courtesy of pinupsandkustoms.com

Bikini

1933-When the US entered WWII nothing escaped rationing. The conservative standards of beach attire for women was drastically altered. The government ordered that the amount cloth that made women’s bathing suits be cut 10 percent. This resulted in bare midriff sections and bared thighs. However, the police still regulated beaches until the Bikini became common place in 50’s.

Torpedo Airstream Trailer
torpedo

courtesy of tincantourist.com

1935-The Torpedo Airstream trailer came as a partially completed trailer with plans or a kit. Wally Byam founder of the Airstream Trailer Company introduced this model to the public and sold plans for 5 dollars. Its unusual shape mimics that of a torpedo giving it a streamline appearance. The travel trailer established a community of sight seekers opening up the roads of America which generated commerce via camping parks, gas stations, and road side eateries.

Willys Quad

1945-Willys Quad is the first commercially sold jeep and the descendant of the military’s Bantam jeep. American Bantam originally designed the jeep for usage in the WWII and named the prototype BRC, Bantam Reconnaissance Car. They were compact cars that had the power of a tank and had the agility to make it thru the roughest of terrain. However, Bantam suffered many financial set backs and Willys-Overland eventually won the military contract and was able to copyright the name Jeep as well as produce versions for public consumption.

Collector Car Corner - Jeep, American Bantam and Willys-Overland

courtesy of trivillagepennysaver.com

Mid-Century Modern

courtesy of midcenturystyle.net

courtesy of midcenturystyle.net

1950-Cara Greenberg coined the term in her book Mid-Century Modern: Furniture of the 1950s to describe design, architecture, furniture and accessories who’s popularity grew after World War II. Products that were designed using the knowledge of technology from the innovations made during the war, in combination with global and local art movements created futuristic home design that mimic organic elements in nature. Known for simplistic natural shapes Frank Lloyd Wright was a leader making some of the most recognizable examples of Mid-century Modern. 

TP 1 Portable Record Player and Transistor Radio

1959-A combined portable record player and transition is representation of the freedom experienced post WWII. Designed by Dieter Rams for Braun it played the records on the underside of the mechanism and only could play 7 inch wide singles at 45 rpm. It’s compact size made listening to records portable which fit into the emerging pop culture lifestyle. Rams motivation for designing this was that he wanted to learn english and he wanted t o do so while he traveled. This is the precursor to the walkman and IPads we know today.

courtesy of designophy.com

courtesy of designophy.com

Cites

Horowitz, Alana, “The Unknown Geniuses Behind 10 of The Most Useful Inventions Ever,” Business Insider, last modified March 3, 2011, accessed February 28, 2014, http://www.businessinsider.com/ten-inventions-you-never-knew-had-inventors-2011-3?op=1

“Brannock Device Foot Measuring Device – Shoe Fitting Tool – Measuring Device,” The Brannock Device Co., Inc., accessed February 28,2014, http://www.brannock.com/cgi-bin/start.cgi/brannock/history.html

Gantz, Carroll, “G.E. Monitor Top Refrigerator,” Industrial Design History, last modified  April 14,2014, accessed February 28,2014, http://www.industrialdesignhistory.com/node/148

“Bikini,” Fashion Encyclopedia, accessed February 28,2014, http://www.fashionencyclopedia.com/fashion_costume_culture/Modern-World-1946-1960/Bikini.html

“Dr. Holman & 1935 Airstream Torpedo,” last modified June 29,2014, accessed February 28,2014, http://www.tincantourists.com/wiki/doku.php?id=holman_norman#.UxT3APRdWQk

Zyla, Greg, “Collector Car Corner-Jeep, American Bantam and Willys-Overland, “ last modified November 10, 2012, accessed February 28,2014, http://trivillagepennysaver.com/index.php/2012/11/10/collector-car-corner-jeep-american-bantam-and-willys-overland/ 

Taylor, Elle Kate,” What is Mid-Century Modern?,” accessed February 28,2014, http://collectibles.about.com/od/collectiblesglossarym/g/What-Is-Mid-Century-Modern.htm

Frances, Mary, “Architectural Definitions for the Mid-Century Enthusiast,” accessed February 28,2014, http://www.divinecaroline.com/life-etc/home-food/architectural-definitions-mid-century-enthusiast

“TP1; T4 transistor radio; P1 portable record player,” accessed February 28,2014, http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O152107/tp1-t4-transistor-radio-p1-tp1-portable-record-rams-dieter/

Noe, Rain, “A History of Braun Design, Part 3: Audio Products,” last modified April 30, 2013, accessed February 28,2014, http://www.core77.com/blog/braun/a_history_of_braun_design_part_3_audio_products_24768.asp

Collage Aesthetics

Film and The Paris Expo The 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle introduced the Photorama Lumiere which was a panoramic projection of 70mm film with sound. The audience stood in the middle and viewed static images of a variety of scapes.

Lumiere Photorama Theatre courtesy of precinemahistory.net

Lumiere Photorama Theatre courtesy of precinemahistory.net

Audiences could also attend a small theatre on the Seine River called Phono-Cinéma-Théatres showcased hand tinted films with accompanied sound of great theatrical performers of the day.

Phono-Cinéma-Théatre poster. Photograph: David Robinson Collection courtesy of silentlondon.co.uk

Phono-Cinéma-Théatre poster. Photograph: David Robinson Collection courtesy of silentlondon.co.uk

The films provided a never before seen medium of art that easily communicated to the the masses. 1900 populations were mostly poor and illiterate, film began to emerge as a easy communication device that was affordable.

“The History of the Discovery Of Cinematography,” accessed February 24,2014, http://www.precinemahistory.net/1895.htm

Brand, Niel.“Phono-Cinéma-Théatre at Le Giornate del Cinema Muto,”last modified October 16, 2012, accessed February 25, 2014, http://silentlondon.co.uk/2012/10/16/phono-cinema-theatre-at-le-giornate-del-cinema-muto/

Horgan, Helen. “The Collage Aesthetic Non-linear Narratives and Personal Myth Making,”last modified 2009, accessed February 22, 2014, http://www.academia.edu/1207793/The_Collage_Aesthetic_Non_Linear_Narratives_and_Personal_Myth_Making

The Leap

A young generation of artist were introduced to film, war, and industrial innovation all in the span of a few years. The began a revolution to remove themselves far from war, create responsibility towards their community, thereby establishing a Utopian society. From this Modernism, Bauhaus, and Collage Aesthetic, just to name a few, movements grew. Film and the Collage Aesthetic feed and inspired each other.  The Collage Aesthetic is a visual communicative art philosophy that combines multiply disciplines to deliver its message. In film it is the angle of the camera, montages, music, color, and narrative which can be easily understood by all walks of life. Below are a group of artist who lived during this time.  Out of the group Filippo Marinetti, John Heartfield, and Alexander Rodchenko were not participates of Collage Aesthetics but were heavily influenced by film.( last three)

Theo van Doesburg

Theo van Doesburg courtesy moma.org

Theo van Doesburg courtesy moma.org

Doesburg is a Dutch artist whose disciplines includes poetry, painting, architecture, and design. He founded and is known for the De stijl, a periodical printed between 1917 and 1932 that has a strong connection to Cubism. De Stijl was a reflection of his ideas and activities which he taught as course at the Bauhaus school. The inset picture is a result of his involvement with the Dada movement. It is a pamphlet explaining what Dada is and was distributed during a tour of Holland. It says, “Dada est contre le futur, Dada est mort, Dada est idiot, vive Dada!” (“Dada is against the future, Dada is dead, Dada is idiotic, Long live Dada!”).

Doig, Allan, “Theo van Doesburg,” Grove Art Online, last modified 2009 Oxford University press, accessed February 23,1014, http://www.moma.org/collection/artist.php?artist_id=6076

Vavara Stepanova

courtesy of bitchmag

courtesy of bitchmag

Described as a frenzied artist. She was married to Alexander Rodchenko who she also shared a successfully collaborative relationship. She was a intricate part of the Russian avante-garde movement with Cubism and Futurism as influences. She referred to herself as a constructivist and much of her work concentrated on creating change within society. She believed that clothing has no need for additional decoration and designed over 150 fabrics. Stepanova’s approach to “prozodezhda” (professional clothing) was to break it up into what it would be used for such as, “sportodezhda” sportswear and “spetzodezhda” clothing that fulfills the needs of pilots, doctors, fireman, etc.

“Varvara Stepanova,” Russian Avantgarde, accessed February 23,2014, http://www.russianavantgarde.nl/Russian_Avantgarde_Art/details/Pages/Varvara-Stepanova.html

Walter Adolph Gropius

courtesy of decoarchitecture.tumblr

courtesy of decoarchitecture.tumblr

Founder of the Bauhaus school, which taught students to bring all forms of art together to create and manufacture useful things. This was a Utopian movement that pushed against the harsh realities of WWI. A diverse student body from a range of social and economic backrounds were encouraged to combine fine art with a variety of other designs.

Griffith Winton, Alexandra . “The Bauhaus, 1919–1933”. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000, Last modified August 2007, accessed February 25, 2014, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/bauh/hd_bauh.htm

Claude Debussy

One of the most influential composers of the 20th century his harmony and structure was a representation of the Impressionist ideals. He was influenced by Russian composers Aleksandr Borodin and Modest Mussorgsky. Haunted by Edgar Allen Poes work, The Fall of the House of Usher, the opera Pelleas et Melisande was created using the Wagnerian technique which is adaptation from other forms of art to music. Some of his hits include;Clair de Lune Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune, and La Mer.

“Claude Debussy,” Encyclopedia Britannica, last modified January 24, 2014, accessed February 22, 2014, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/154804/Claude-Debussy

Ferdinand Porsche

He always loved technology and electricity so he turned his attentions to vehicle engineering founding his own firm in 1931. He and his son designed the first Volkswagen which translates to People’s Car. The Poeple’s Car was also a project of Hitlers.

courtesy of blog.hemmings.com

Hitler Ruins Everything, courtesy of blog.hemmings.com

___“Ferdinand Porsche biography,” A+E Networks Biography, accessed February 23, 2014,  http://www.biography.com/people/ferdinand-porsche-9542414?page=1

Léon Bakst

courtesy of polarbearstale.blogspot.com

courtesy of polarbearstale.blogspot.com

Designed innovative costumes and scenery for the Ballet Russes, he began theartical production in the early 1900. Bakst is most known for sensational opulence in his approach to theatrical design. He began his career with illustrating childrens magazines/books. He was inspired by art collaborations such as “Nevsky Pickwickians” and the Mir Iskusstva (“World of Art”) movement that publish a journal of the same name. The Journal hoped to teach the Russian public about Art issues and trends.

Kuiper, Kathleen. “Leon Bakst,”Encyclopedia Britannica, last modified October 10,2013, accessed February 22, 2014, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/49634/Leon-Bakst  

The influence of film is one small part of the art and innovation of all these artist. The three men below not only used film but searched outside the norm to create something all new pulling from all art forms to create their mark which is the mark of Collage Aesthetic.                                                                                         

Filippo Marinetti courtesy of blog.ali-comunicazione.com Marinetti was extremely controversial and volatile within his ideologies as well as how he lived his life. He published  ‘Manifeste de fondation du Futurisme’ which sought to establish a new approach to poetry that prized danger, aggression, speed, war, crowd excitement, revolution, industry and technology. Marinetti also proposed the destruction of libraries, museums, and academies. While touring Europe giving lectures on Futurism he challenged a Irish journalist to a duel for criticizing the Italian army.

courtesy of moma.org

                            -The Dirigible by Filippo Marinetti courtesy of moma.org
courtesy of moma.org

courtesy of moma.org

courtesy of moma.org

courtesy of moma.org

courtesy of motorcycleculture.com

courtesy of motorcycleculture.com

courtesy of counter-currents.com

courtesy of counter-currents.com

Filippo is the great great grandfather of the philosophy behind action adventure film. His prized approaches to life and art truly feed a “wild west” existence. Bold colors and movement dominate even in his typography execution. 
___________
Belloli, Carlo. “Filippo Tommaso Marinetti,” Grove Art Online, last modified 2009 Oxford University press, accessed February 23,1014, http://www.moma.org/collection/artist.php?artist_id=3771
John Heartfield
courtesy of getty.edu

courtesy of getty.edu

The father of the modern photomontage used his work to poke fun at, foretell upcoming atrocities, and protest against the Nazis regime creating a powerful medium that communicated to the masses. Photos taken from everyday recognizable press images were rearranged, layered creating impassioned imagery.

© 2006 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn John Heartfield German, 1932 Copper-plate photogravure From AIZ (July 17, 1932), vol. 11, no. 29, p. 675 87-S194 Research Library, The Getty Research Institute

courtesy getty.edu © 2006 Artists Rights Society

© 2006 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn John Heartfield German, 1920 Relief halftone From Der Dada (1920), no. 3, cover 85-S56 Research Library, The Getty Research Institute

courtesy of getty.edu © 2006 Artists Rights Society

© 2006 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn John Heartfield German, 1930 Copper-plate photogravure From AIZ (1930), vol. 9, no. 6, p. 103 87-S194 Research Library, The Getty Research Institute

courtesy of getty.edu © 2006 Artists Rights Society

© 2006 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn John Heartfield German, 1932 Copper-plate photogravure From AIZ (April 24, 1932), vol. 11, no. 18, pp. 420–421 87-S194 Research Library, The Getty Research Institute

courtesy of getty.edu © 2006 Artists Rights Society 

© 2006 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn John Heartfield German, 1928 Relief halftone Berlin: Malik Verlag 92-B8185 Research Library, The Getty Research Institute

courtesy of getty.edu © 2006 Artists Rights Society

The posters are still frames with layered elements creating a visible narrative. These images mimic a film montage. The Odessa Steps scene in the film Battleship Potemkin can be compared to the Heartfield’s posters. The film cuts back in forth between innocents being shot down by the soldiers of the bourgeois a lion going from a seated position to standing. The layers of photos and typography generate a story. Both incite a passioned revolution against the powers that be.

___________ “Agitated Images: John Heartfield&German Photomontage, 1920-1938,” The J. Paul Getty Museum, Last modified 2006, accessed February 22, 2014,  https://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/heartfield/

Alexander Rodchenko

courtesy of cargocollective.com

courtesy of cargocollective.com

Husband of Vavara Stepanova, Rodchenko helped establish Constructivism.

His combined various forms of art, sculptor, photography and graphic design to help further social change.

He rejected the “painters” approach to photography and chose a documentary style with influences from the German Dadaist.

“One has to take several different shots of a subject, from different points of view and in different situations, as if one examined it in the round rather than looked through the same key-hole again and again.”

Rodchenko uses the power of different angles to capture the message he is trying to deliver. As filmmakers grew more sophisticated in the filmmaking processed they realized that a close up juxtapose a wide angle produced more of a reaction from viewing audiences. Adapting this to photos helped diversify the message and increase communication with one frame.

alexander-rodchenko-warwara-stepanowa-young-gliders-1933-1024x716

courtesy of photoforager.com

RodchenkoOnThePavement-706x1024

courtesy of photoforager.com

courtesy of photoforager.com

courtesy of photoforager.com

courtesy of cargocollective.com

courtesy of cargocollective.com

________________ “Alexander Rodchenko,” Lumiere, accessed February 24, 2014,  http://lumieregallery.net/wp/238/alexander-rodchenko/

Aldo Rossi and NeoRationalism

1966 Aldo Rossi book, The Architecture of The City, established him within the Postmodernist community, as the leading innovator of the Neorationalist movement also known as Tendenza.

courtesy of architecture and urbanism blogspot

courtesy of architecture and urbanism blogspot

A teacher and theorist his first building came to him thru winning a contest with colleague Gianni Braghieri which was to be located in Modena Italy. He gained international fame having designed a floating theater in Venice Biennale. Rossi’s theory and analogical approach was summed up by him as “inventory and memory”. He was italian born, educated, and settled in the city of Milan. As a native he was a witness to the evolution of the cities he considered ” artifacts” of everyday living. He further believed that what developed should not be disturbed and if something new were to be added it should mimic what already exist.

In the case of Rossi, establishing his historical style reference is easy and doesn’t require to many sources to obtain. Many of the references state plainly that he is the father of Neorationalism. However, Rossi is clumped in with Postmodernist, often within the same text. Very Confusing. When this occurs during the research process what Neorationalism isn’t lends clarity. Scholars and Architects all agree that the Neo’s and Post are not Modernist. Modernist architecture, like Neo and Post, busies itself with breaking rules and embracing the idea that less is more. Philip Johnson, pioneer of International Style pushed the American Modernist and created structures like the insert picture below.

Philip Johnson Glass House courtesy theglasshouse.org

Philip Johnson Glass House courtesy theglasshouse.org

Where they differ is the Neorationlist embraces the past creating a synergy with its surrounding architecture through a similar visual esthetic though the function is not what it appears. Cemetery of San Cataldo located in Modena Italy is one of Rossi’s most famous examples of this, featured below.

© guiba6 via Flickr

© guiba6 via Flickr

It resembles the factories in the surrounding area but behind the facade are crypts for the deceased. Teatro Del Mondo built in 1979 spoke to the floating theaters from Venice past pictured here.

courtesy of archiveofaffinities.tumblr

courtesy of archive of affinities.tumbler

Neorationlist are a sub-genre of postmodernist and are a fairly small group of architects. One article may concentrate on a particular contributor but will readily list the others in explanation of the movement. Learning the names is the first step to finding the bios, then to examples of work. One of these contributors is Giorgio Grassi. He furthered the Neo rationalist movement and like Rossi concerned himself with simplicity and urban areas.

ABB Roland Ernst headquarters, Berlin - Germany 1993-97 courtesy of Tallinn University of Technology

Giorgio Grassi, ABB Roland Ernst headquarters, Berlin – Germany 1993-97 courtesy of
Tallinn University of Technology

Like wise Carlo Aymonino most famous for his Gallaretese housing complex in Milan planned urban development. He and Rossi collaborated on the Monte Amiata Housing within the Gallaretese. 

Monte Amita Housing courtesy of housing protoypes.org

Monte Amita Housing courtesy of housing protoypes.org

Though not a part of the neorationalist but under the umbrella of the postmodernist is Robert Venturi. He was not as concerned with urban vernacular but his interest in the symbolic facades that compliment its existing surroundings with contradictory interiors.

© Maria Buszek courtesy of acrhdaily.com

© Maria Buszek courtesy of archdaily.com

The four Architects listed all are students of the Vernacular Style. Rossi, Aymonino, and Grassi all favor urban historical development and help the cities maintain a truth about themselves. Their structures allow the city to keep developing and telling its story rather than have a building that doesn’t resemble the rest which invades the space making one individual statement. I added Venturi to the mix to show another way these principles can be applied in a  rural setting.

Aldo Rossi was and is often referred to as a theorist and not so much as an Architect due to his lack of actual buildings. Many scholars and fellow architects regard his work as haunting and a backdrop for horror. However, the minimalism and lack of ornament is more telling to the nature of the barren aspect of city.

Cites

Zukowsky, John. “Aldo Rossi,” Encyclopedia Britannica Online,  Last Update May 30,2013.

Accessed February 15,2014, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/510204/Aldo-Rossi

Curl, James Steven. “A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture: Neo-Rationalism (2 ed.).” Published online 2006, Accessed February 15,2014, http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100228473

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http://www.preservationnation.org/magazine/2008/may-june/what-is-modernism.html

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Russian Constructivism and The Wire Poster Project

10The_Man_with_the_Movie_Camera_1929

The Man with the Movie Camera (1929).Georgy and Vladimir Stenberg
courtesy of California State University Northridge

HISTORY

Russian Constructivism was the reaction against the bourgeois and Czar monarchy. Considered one of the last art movements in Russia, it was able to develop during the 1917 revolution headed by the Bolsheviks. The art forms influences came from Cubism, Suprematism, and Futurism but it hoped to create an even more avant-garde movement. Art was no longer for art sake but instead produced to serve and be used by the community. Constructivism consisted of print art, products, and sculpture using uniform styles of creation and esthetics. Ironically, the Bolsheviks whose influence made the movement possible, was its undoing when the party became intolerant of avant-grade art forms.

October(1926) Georgy and Valdimir Stenberg courtesy of GRAD

October(1926)
Georgy and Valdimir Stenberg
courtesy of GRAD

ELEMENTS

The elements that make Russian Constructivism recognizable are:

~minimal, abstracted, geometric shapes

~imitated photography or actual photography within a collage

~typefaces used for literal meaning and aesthetic properties in construction

~ Looks constructed rather than created

~flat colors with open spaces

Varvara Stepanova, Cover for Children and the Cinema, 1928 courtesy of Design In History

Varvara Stepanova, Cover for Children and the Cinema, 1928 courtesy of Design In History

RUSSIAN CONSTRUCTIVISM AND THE FILM POSTER

Six Girls Seeking Shelter(1928)Georgy and Vladimir Stenberg courtesy of California State University

Six Girls Seeking Shelter(1928)Georgy and Vladimir Stenberg
courtesy of California State University Northridge

Early on, Russian Revolutionaries recognized film as an exceptional tool for propaganda that was easily accessible to the masses. The film posters were an extension of this propaganda. Stenberg Brothers, Georgy and Vladimir, were the lead artist in the production of the Russian Film poster. Early in the Bolsheviks movement they had embraced Constructivism creating works that encompassed the esthetic and vernacular needed to push the message without ever having seen the movie. Posters featured elements used in film such as extreme closeup and photo collages in black and white mimicking the film stock. They layered colors and type that conveyed the spirit of the film. The posters, in and of themselves, became definitive works of art.

The Three Million Case (1926) Georgy and Vladimir Stenberg courtesy of GRAD

The Three Million Case (1926)
Georgy and Vladimir Stenberg
courtesy of GRAD

 

THE WIRE POSTER PROJECT

photo 1

taken by B. Creek at D Center in Baltimore, MD

photo 2

Oliver Munday’s Posters : taken by B. Creek at D Center in Baltimore, MD

The Wire Poster Project is a series of 60 posters representing the epigraphs from the opening of all the episodes of HBO’s The Wire. Within the show these epigraphs were also a line of dialogue delivered by one of the characters. The posters, designed by Oliver Munday, are a amalgam of styles which include Russian Constructivism, Atomic Age, and Globe Poster.

The blending of these styles create an all new way to extend the enjoyment of the show for the fans and viewers. But it also provided a new vernacular to those who might not had viewed or been curious about the show before seeing it oriented in this way.

photo 4

Oliver Munday’s posters:taken by B. Creek at the D Center Baltimore, MD

Munday choosing the Globe style, which is familiar to the average Baltimorean, also pays homage to the city as the largest character of the show. This Globe style creates a base for the words to attract attention, which was the main goal of the Globe Posters. The elements of the Globe style were bold colors with bold black type advertising a lowbrow entertainment such as rock-n-roll concerts, circuses, and carnivals. These poster communicated that someone was coming to town. The bold letters spelled out who and if the act was someone you wanted to see you would take the time to find out where and when. If not, none of the busy city dwellers time was wasted because all this information could be delivered in a glance.

Globe Poster/FranK Zappa courtesy of MICA

Globe Poster/Frank Zappa
courtesy of MICA

courtesy of thecontemporarywing.com

courtesy of thecontemporarywing.com

Acknowledging work was also a topic brought up during the D Center talk. Attribution is the catalyst for fair practice in art, amongst artist, and into the realm of advertising. Joe Galbreath went over “Putting the Outdoor Poster into Context” as well as defining and recognizing where inspiration comes from. Simple communication, like the simple message of the Globe Poster, keep styles available to be researched so they can be studied and recreated for lasting enjoyment by the masses.

photo 3

Oliver Munday’s posters:taken by B. Creek at the D Center Baltimore, MD

Cites
“Russian Constructivism,” The Art History Archive, accessed February 9, 2014,http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/constructivism/

“Russian Constructivism (1916-1924),” California State University Northridge, accessed February 9,2014,http://www.csun.edu/~pjd77408/DrD/Art461/LecturesAll/Lectures/lecture07/Constructivism.html

“Constructivism,” Design Is History, accessed February 9,2014,http://www.designishistory.com/1920/constructivism/

“Kino/Film: Soviet Posters of The Silent Screen,” Gallery For Russian Arts and Design, accessed February 11, 2014,http://www.grad-london.com/whatson/kino-film-soviet-posters-of-the-silent-screen/
Kristin Hohenadel,.”The Wire Poster Project,” Slate’s Design Blog, November 7,2013 (9:15 AM),http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_eye/2013/11/07/the_wire_poster_project_a_graphic_designer_s_homage_to_the_critically_acclaimed.html

Frank Zappa Globe Poster,”Mica to Acquire Historic Globe Poster Collection,”MICA Communications, posted March 11, 2011. accessed February 10, 2014, http://www.mica.edu/News/MICA_to_Purchase_Historic_Globe_Poster_Collection.html

“Globe Poster Archive,” Contemporary Wing, accessed February 10, 2014, http://contemporarywing.com/artists/globe-poster-archive