Film and The Paris Expo The 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle introduced the Photorama Lumiere which was a panoramic projection of 70mm film with sound. The audience stood in the middle and viewed static images of a variety of scapes.
Audiences could also attend a small theatre on the Seine River called Phono-Cinéma-Théatres showcased hand tinted films with accompanied sound of great theatrical performers of the day.
The films provided a never before seen medium of art that easily communicated to the the masses. 1900 populations were mostly poor and illiterate, film began to emerge as a easy communication device that was affordable.
“The History of the Discovery Of Cinematography,” accessed February 24,2014, http://www.precinemahistory.net/1895.htm
Brand, Niel.“Phono-Cinéma-Théatre at Le Giornate del Cinema Muto,”last modified October 16, 2012, accessed February 25, 2014, http://silentlondon.co.uk/2012/10/16/phono-cinema-theatre-at-le-giornate-del-cinema-muto/
Horgan, Helen. “The Collage Aesthetic Non-linear Narratives and Personal Myth Making,”last modified 2009, accessed February 22, 2014, http://www.academia.edu/1207793/The_Collage_Aesthetic_Non_Linear_Narratives_and_Personal_Myth_Making
A young generation of artist were introduced to film, war, and industrial innovation all in the span of a few years. The began a revolution to remove themselves far from war, create responsibility towards their community, thereby establishing a Utopian society. From this Modernism, Bauhaus, and Collage Aesthetic, just to name a few, movements grew. Film and the Collage Aesthetic feed and inspired each other. The Collage Aesthetic is a visual communicative art philosophy that combines multiply disciplines to deliver its message. In film it is the angle of the camera, montages, music, color, and narrative which can be easily understood by all walks of life. Below are a group of artist who lived during this time. Out of the group Filippo Marinetti, John Heartfield, and Alexander Rodchenko were not participates of Collage Aesthetics but were heavily influenced by film.( last three)
Theo van Doesburg
Doesburg is a Dutch artist whose disciplines includes poetry, painting, architecture, and design. He founded and is known for the De stijl, a periodical printed between 1917 and 1932 that has a strong connection to Cubism. De Stijl was a reflection of his ideas and activities which he taught as course at the Bauhaus school. The inset picture is a result of his involvement with the Dada movement. It is a pamphlet explaining what Dada is and was distributed during a tour of Holland. It says, “Dada est contre le futur, Dada est mort, Dada est idiot, vive Dada!” (“Dada is against the future, Dada is dead, Dada is idiotic, Long live Dada!”).
Doig, Allan, “Theo van Doesburg,” Grove Art Online, last modified 2009 Oxford University press, accessed February 23,1014, http://www.moma.org/collection/artist.php?artist_id=6076
Described as a frenzied artist. She was married to Alexander Rodchenko who she also shared a successfully collaborative relationship. She was a intricate part of the Russian avante-garde movement with Cubism and Futurism as influences. She referred to herself as a constructivist and much of her work concentrated on creating change within society. She believed that clothing has no need for additional decoration and designed over 150 fabrics. Stepanova’s approach to “prozodezhda” (professional clothing) was to break it up into what it would be used for such as, “sportodezhda” sportswear and “spetzodezhda” clothing that fulfills the needs of pilots, doctors, fireman, etc.
“Varvara Stepanova,” Russian Avantgarde, accessed February 23,2014, http://www.russianavantgarde.nl/Russian_Avantgarde_Art/details/Pages/Varvara-Stepanova.html
Walter Adolph Gropius
Founder of the Bauhaus school, which taught students to bring all forms of art together to create and manufacture useful things. This was a Utopian movement that pushed against the harsh realities of WWI. A diverse student body from a range of social and economic backrounds were encouraged to combine fine art with a variety of other designs.
Griffith Winton, Alexandra . “The Bauhaus, 1919–1933”. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000, Last modified August 2007, accessed February 25, 2014, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/bauh/hd_bauh.htm
One of the most influential composers of the 20th century his harmony and structure was a representation of the Impressionist ideals. He was influenced by Russian composers Aleksandr Borodin and Modest Mussorgsky. Haunted by Edgar Allen Poes work, The Fall of the House of Usher, the opera Pelleas et Melisande was created using the Wagnerian technique which is adaptation from other forms of art to music. Some of his hits include;Clair de Lune , Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune, and La Mer.
“Claude Debussy,” Encyclopedia Britannica, last modified January 24, 2014, accessed February 22, 2014, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/154804/Claude-Debussy
He always loved technology and electricity so he turned his attentions to vehicle engineering founding his own firm in 1931. He and his son designed the first Volkswagen which translates to People’s Car. The Poeple’s Car was also a project of Hitlers.
___“Ferdinand Porsche biography,” A+E Networks Biography, accessed February 23, 2014, http://www.biography.com/people/ferdinand-porsche-9542414?page=1
Designed innovative costumes and scenery for the Ballet Russes, he began theartical production in the early 1900. Bakst is most known for sensational opulence in his approach to theatrical design. He began his career with illustrating childrens magazines/books. He was inspired by art collaborations such as “Nevsky Pickwickians” and the Mir Iskusstva (“World of Art”) movement that publish a journal of the same name. The Journal hoped to teach the Russian public about Art issues and trends.
Kuiper, Kathleen. “Leon Bakst,”Encyclopedia Britannica, last modified October 10,2013, accessed February 22, 2014, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/49634/Leon-Bakst
The influence of film is one small part of the art and innovation of all these artist. The three men below not only used film but searched outside the norm to create something all new pulling from all art forms to create their mark which is the mark of Collage Aesthetic.
Filippo Marinetti Marinetti was extremely controversial and volatile within his ideologies as well as how he lived his life. He published ‘Manifeste de fondation du Futurisme’ which sought to establish a new approach to poetry that prized danger, aggression, speed, war, crowd excitement, revolution, industry and technology. Marinetti also proposed the destruction of libraries, museums, and academies. While touring Europe giving lectures on Futurism he challenged a Irish journalist to a duel for criticizing the Italian army.
- -The Dirigible by Filippo Marinetti courtesy of moma.org
- Filippo is the great great grandfather of the philosophy behind action adventure film. His prized approaches to life and art truly feed a “wild west” existence. Bold colors and movement dominate even in his typography execution.
- Belloli, Carlo. “Filippo Tommaso Marinetti,” Grove Art Online, last modified 2009 Oxford University press, accessed February 23,1014, http://www.moma.org/collection/artist.php?artist_id=3771
- John Heartfield
The father of the modern photomontage used his work to poke fun at, foretell upcoming atrocities, and protest against the Nazis regime creating a powerful medium that communicated to the masses. Photos taken from everyday recognizable press images were rearranged, layered creating impassioned imagery.
The posters are still frames with layered elements creating a visible narrative. These images mimic a film montage. The Odessa Steps scene in the film Battleship Potemkin can be compared to the Heartfield’s posters. The film cuts back in forth between innocents being shot down by the soldiers of the bourgeois a lion going from a seated position to standing. The layers of photos and typography generate a story. Both incite a passioned revolution against the powers that be.
___________ “Agitated Images: John Heartfield&German Photomontage, 1920-1938,” The J. Paul Getty Museum, Last modified 2006, accessed February 22, 2014, https://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/heartfield/
Husband of Vavara Stepanova, Rodchenko helped establish Constructivism.
His combined various forms of art, sculptor, photography and graphic design to help further social change.
He rejected the “painters” approach to photography and chose a documentary style with influences from the German Dadaist.
“One has to take several different shots of a subject, from different points of view and in different situations, as if one examined it in the round rather than looked through the same key-hole again and again.”
Rodchenko uses the power of different angles to capture the message he is trying to deliver. As filmmakers grew more sophisticated in the filmmaking processed they realized that a close up juxtapose a wide angle produced more of a reaction from viewing audiences. Adapting this to photos helped diversify the message and increase communication with one frame.
________________ “Alexander Rodchenko,” Lumiere, accessed February 24, 2014, http://lumieregallery.net/wp/238/alexander-rodchenko/